The Society provides research grants to members of the society. Ubelaker (1978, 35) suggests that curved lateral splintering and marked warping can be indicative of the body being burnt while still ‘fresh’, i.e., soon after death, and this was probably the case at Swaites Hill. Archaeological investigations have demonstrated a Neolithic origin for the enclosure at Blackhouse Burn with later re-use in the Bronze Age. In addition to books, recent volumes of the journal have reviewed new museums, exhibitions and research on Scotland published in periodical literature. The excavation was carried out by Rathmell Archaeology in 2015. It is possible that some of the large boulders located close to the cairn were once placed in the recesses in the outer kerb, though this arrangement is unlikely to have formed a stone circle as at Cairnwell. None of the remaining seven contexts exceeded 1g in charcoal. Published by Edinburgh University Press on behalf of the Glasgow Archaeological Society. Indeed dating evidence can be rather difficult with regard to the four classes as one of each class has been found in association with each of the other classes in the hoards of Britain. The cremated bone gave a radiocarbon date of 3695 ± 30BP (cal BC 2147–2016 at 2 Sigma, SUERC- 71902 (GU43368)). The samples were submitted to the Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre (SUERC). Both included quantities of wood charcoal, derived from alder, and with the level of charcoal much higher in (027) than in (033). Although there are some slight differences in the reported results, in the main, the higher the temperature, the lighter the colour. No. Copyright © 2020. Though no grave goods were found within the cists a small number of lithics were identified during the processing of the soil samples taken from them. The bones had also been similarly subjected to a fairly marked degree of cracking, twisting and curved lateral splintering. The underside of the bottom edge of the collar is defined by a row of stab decoration. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Modern contamination was recorded in all 19 samples and was composed of roots, spores, earth worm capsules, fly pupae and insect eggs. Largest offer of handmade swords from the Bronze age to the Roman Empire. The first phase is partly conjectural and based on observation of the site plans. The length of time bones are exposed to heat may also be a factor in colour change (Correia, 1997). The recovery of the remains of another urn, additional cremated human bone deposits and a Middle Bronze Age rapier within the upper cairn and re-deposited cairn material hints at even greater complexity. The one on the left is Neil's "Type II" Ewart Park sword, the middle is his newest piece, the Naue II, and the far right is a Ci Rapier. The interior was filled to a depth of 470mm by (021) a mid-orange-brown sandy silt with occasional flecks of birch charcoal (Betula sp.). Sherds from two Bronze Age urns – a collared urn and an urn of undetermined type – were recovered from the excavations at Swaites Hill. Lasting for approximately 1,700 years, it was preceded by the era of Neolithic Britain and was in turn followed by the period of Iron Age Britain.Being categorised as the Bronze Age, it was marked by the use of copper and then bronze by the prehistoric Britons, who used such metals to fashion tools. The Class 2 weapon has a simpler cross-section, typically with a slight central ridge marking its lozenge shaped cross-section. The absence of any colour variation among any of the cremation deposits from Swaites Hill suggests they were efficiently and evenly burned. Around the cairn, and indeed in the general landscape, many large boulders were present. This suggested pre-cairn anthropic activity such as clearance or agriculture in the immediate environs of the site, with any such activity potentially occurring closer to Zone 3. Sold. The size of the cremation deposit of the secondary burial in Cist 1, as well as the completeness of the remains, suggest that they were carefully collected. waterworn) cobbles of varying colour and texture. A date for this development sometime in the later 17th early 16th century BC appears most likely, but there is no clear dividing line between daggers, dirks and rapiers. The only charcoal species identified within cremation [028] was oak. The fill (023) of Cist 1 was a light orange-brown sandy silt with inclusions of small stones, fragments of birch charcoal (Betula sp.) A second urn and further cremated human bone deposits were found in the upper cairn material. The evaluation confirmed the suspected clearance cairns to be exactly that; their age could not, however, be ascertained. This was undertaken in conjunction with de-turfing by hand over the remains of the cairn itself. The floor consisted of a paved surface [031], formed from sub-angular flat stones between 80–460mm in length and less than 30mm thick. They travelled in long wooden boats rowed by oarsmen. Rather, they may have comprised solitary standing stones incorporated into the cairn. The Spanish term refers to a sword used with clothes ("espada ropera", dress sword), due to it being used as an accessory for clothing, usually for fashion and as a self-defense weapon. The Glasgow Archaeological Society was founded in 1856 to promote the study of archaeology with a special emphasis on western Scotland. Incredibly, they were both placed in the water as gifts to the gods. Only one lithic, flint chunk <22>, exhibited evidence of heat alteration or burning. (2008) indicated that at less than 200°C: there was a gradual darkening in colour, at 300°C there was a shift to black, above 300°C colour changed from black to tan to grey, with the lightest colour occurring between 800°C to 1000°C. A Super Bronze Age Rapier Complete with Rivets dating to about 800 B.C. Given the amount of redeposited material (009) occurring around the cairn, at a rough guess the cairn may originally have stood at about 1m in height, although the removal of stone from the site may have reduced this considerably. Its name is a "derisive" description of the Spanish term "ropera". This is the grooved rapier from Isleham, Cambridgeshire (Burgess & Gerloff 1981, Cat. At least five possible phases for the construction and usage of the Swaites Hill cairn can be extrapolated from both its stratigraphy and overall morphology. (According to one experiment conducted by Dr Alison Sheridan (2010), it could take as long as 24 hours before the remains are cool enough to handle.) All of the remains were similar in appearance: colour was a uniform beige and there was no evidence of variations in colour. and cremated human bone (028) was uncovered sitting in the northeast end. The third blade <67.9> recovered from the primary fill of Cist 2 was a chert plano-convex knife of flint with fine serrated edges, having lost its distal end, the dorsal surface fully retouched. This increased near the tip to seven, though the details of the transition were concealed by corrosion products. The side stones forming its walls were capped by further level stones, placed to slightly overhang the body of the cist. An attempt to obtain a radiocarbon date from the small amount of cremated human bone recovered failed as insufficient carbon remained within the sampled bone. The vessel profile expands slightly below the rim. I hope you … This would explain why the cists were not located centrally within the overall cairn structure. Their similarity with the grooved daggers of Gerloff's Armorico-British type (Gerloff 1975), combined with their largely complementary distribution, has led to the suggestion that these objects may be contemporary with some of the later dagger types and that the Group 1 rapiers may have their origins as early as 1600–1500 BC (Cowie 1995, 349). Dating evidence recovered from the cremation suggested a date range between the late 22nd and mid 20th century BC, similar to the cremations recovered from within Cist 1. General osteological methods employed are those outlined in Buikstra and Ubelaker (1994) and, specifically for juvenile remains, on Schaefer et al. Its modern origins were inferred from the fact that its character differed markedly from the parent cairn material: the deposit was only moderately compacted, with no regular pattern of deposition evident amongst the stone component and residual lenses of topsoil (001) occurring on a regular basis. The remains from the third cremation, Context [017], originated from an individual older than the other two and probably adult. The Middle Bronze Age rapier would have been a later, 16th to 15th century BC, addition to the site, perhaps deposited within a recess on the outside face of the outer kerb (potentially built into the kerb in order to receive it) or within a pit or cist sunk into the upper cairn material. The rapier blade and handle are part of a Bronze Age hoard discovered a short distance inland from Black Rock, East Brighton, in late 1913 or early 1914. Our knife is from the latter group – an adhering or cortex-like material on the dorsal surface may have been a consequence of hafting, but this is highly speculative. No information on the sex of any of the individuals could be extracted and no pathological lesions were noted. Of note was the infrequent but regular appearance of well-rounded (i.e. The colour of burnt remains can indicate the temperature achieved during burning. Before bronze, stone (flint, obsidian f.e.) Key: *=<10, **=10–29, ***=30–100, ****=>100, weight given in grams in brackets. It was, however, incomplete, with much of the butt and the blade tip missing. Forgotten your password? Moulds of stone or clay would be encased in a thick layer of coarse clay to aid in heat retention so that the mould did not cool too quickly, as the thermal shock can cause internal flaws in the weapon, if not macro-damage in the form of fractures. In addition to documenting new discoveries, the journal promotes scholarly discussion and debate by encouraging the submission of papers of synthesis and analysis. Much of the hoard dates to the Middle Bronze Age, around 3,500 years ago. Register for a new account. Findings from other cist burial sites in Scotland also show variation in their final contents: some contain no grave goods or cremated remains, while over half of those with cremated remains which were excavated in antiquity were backfilled with soil while others were only partially filled or not filled at all (Hunter 2000). Vessel 2 may have been a bucket or barrel-shaped urn. These demonstrated a certain amount of complexity, with three cremation burials contained within the cists and another disturbed cremation burial with an associated cordoned urn identified beneath the cairn material. Alternatively, the rapier may never have accompanied a burial in the first place, instead representing the deposition of a single object in a ‘special’ place. A Bronze Age cairn and rapier find from Swaites Hill, Cloburn Quarry, South Lanarkshire, Phase 1: Initial Cist Burials & Possible Early Kerb, Phase 2: The Inner Kerb & Pre-Cairn Activity, Classification and description of lithic artefacts: a discussion of the basic lithic terminology, Forts, camps and motes of the Upper Ward of Lanarkshire, Fire modification of bone: a review of the literature, A New Look at the Late Bronze Age Metalwork from the Tay, Olcote, Breasclete Park, Callanish (Uig parish), burial cairn and quartz scatter, Excavation of an Early Bronze Age Cemetery and other sites at West Water Reservoir, West Linton, Scottish Borders, Préhistoire de la Pierre Taillée Tome 3 (Meudon), Excavation of a Bronze Age ring cairn at Cloburn Quarry, Cairngryffe Hill, Lanarkshire, The excavation and survey of prehistoric enclosures at Blackshouse Burn, Lanarkshire, Olcote, Breasclete Park, Callanish (Uig parish), kerb cairn and quartz scatter, Middle Bronze Age Dirks and Rapiers from Scotland: Some Finds Old and New, The excavation of Cairnwell ring-cairn, Portletten, Aberdeenshire, Unpublished grey literature report by Rathmell Archaeology Ltd, Dating the Scottish Bronze Age: ‘There is clearly much that the material can still tell us, “..beads which have given rise to much dogmatism, controversy and rash speculation”: faience in Early Bronze Age Britain and Ireland, Burnt bones and Teeth: an Experimental Study of Color, Morphology, Crystal Structure and Shrinkage, Time, temperature and oxygen availability: an experimental study of the effects of environmental conditions on the colour and organic content of cremated bone, with contributions by Alan Duffy, Rob Engl, Fraser Hunter, Rachel Ives, Ann Macsween, Jackaline Robertson and Suerc Illustrated by Graeme Carruthers, Attila Csaba and Leonora O'Brien, http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.465.4369&rep=rep1&type=pdf, Neolithic Pits, a Bronze Age Cremation and an Early Iron Age Ring-Ditch at Newton Farm, Cambuslang, Lanarkshire, A Neolithic Structure and Bronze Age Activity at West Flank Road, Drumchapel, Glasgow, Blades for the gods, blades for the dead: a Bronze Age rapier from Swaites Hill, South Lanarkshire, Excavation of a Bronze Age Ring-Groove House at Inverkip, Inverclyde, A Bronze Age Cairn at Coneypark, Stirling, Castlebank Street and the origins of the Bishop's house/Partick Castle, Excavating a Mid-Iron Age crouched inhumation on the shores of Loch Gruinart, Islay, Argyll and Bute, The excavation of Bankhead homestead, Darvel, Ayrshire, Remnants of a cremation burial from cist [016], Charcoal-rich deposit over possible hearth, Australian Research Council ERA 2012 Journal List, CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure), European Reference Index for the Humanities (ERIH PLUS), International Medieval Bibliography (IMB), Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals, Series and Publishers, Web of Science/Emerging Sources Citation Index. Its displacement sadly removed any chance we may have had at establishing its chronological and spatial relationship with cairn and burials; it may, for example, have accompanied a cist or burial incorporated into the upper cairn material and subsequently destroyed. The fabric is fine clay with roughly 60% of well crushed angular fragments which has fired hard and is red with a grey core (Fig 8). Some, however, did not follow this pattern. Fig 7 Rapier of Burgess and Gerloff's Group 1 Type. This type of pattern is formed by impressing whipped cord, for example on the urn from West Ashy in Lincolnshire (Longworth 1984, Pl 14a, 226); and twisted cord, eg Llandian, Gwynedd (ibid Pl 18b, 327), Kirriemuir in Tayside (ibid Pl 51C, 313) and Kettle in Fife (ibid 313, Pl 90(e)); and by incision, for example on urns from Chorley, Lancs (ibid 217, Pl 82b), in this case enclosed between single linear incised lines with an incised lattice on the neck and a row of jabs on the shoulder; Tara, Co Meath (ibid Pl 93a, 2236), Inverkeithing, Fife (ibid, Pl 102a, 1823), and West Hampshire (ibid, Pl 107(b), 649). There are further archaeological sites in the vicinity; the majority are cairns but cairnfields and short cists have also been identified. It is credible that this was deliberately interred within this cist, although the knife would have been broken at that time. The lectures are open to the public free of charge. Both surfaces are sooted. Of the remaining 36 lithics, two raw material types were present: flint (7 lithics, 20% – grey to translucent brown in colour) and chert (29 lithics, 80% – light to dark grey in colour, some pieces exhibiting banding or mottling). As a point of reference, furnaces in modern crematoria were said to operate at between 820°C and 980°C (Wells 1960, 35), or according to McKinley, between 700°C and 1000°C (2001, 283). The discovery of a Middle Bronze Age rapier within re-deposited cairn material hints at even more complexity; however, the full picture was sadly obscured by eighteenth to nineteenth century disturbance. Areas of irregularity in structure and composition were noted within the outer kerb: these mostly represent later disturbance or subsidence but two of these areas, in Zones 1 and 3, may represent recesses which could have accommodated larger stones of similar dimensions to the boulders located close to the cairn. The quartz pieces were predominantly recovered from processed soil samples (149 pieces) with the primary fill of Cist 2 dominating this assemblage (103 pieces), followed by the primary fills of Cist 1 (45 pieces). Shipman et al. Book reviews, a distinctive feature of the journal since its establishment (as the Glasgow Archaeological Journal) in 1969, provide a critical perspective on Scottish archaeology and a well-established forum for scholarly debate. Class 4 are the most numerous and probably longest-living class. Again, any evidence which may have elucidated the circumstances of the rapier's deposition was destroyed by later disturbance. 1500-1250BC. The Society also arranges day conferences and excursions and publishes a biannual Bulletin of current notes and news, which welcomes submissions and notices. The Group 1 rapiers are predominantly found in Ireland, but additional concentrations have been noted in the River Thames and the northern Fenland area around Norfolk. The extent of this spread of material is shown in Fig 2: its maximum depth was 500mm and it consisted of small to medium-sized, angular and sub-angular stones with infrequent large stones (500 by 500mm) present, all within a mid-grey-brown sandy-silt matrix. See more ideas about Bronze age, Bronze, Ancient weapons. The primary burial in Cist 1 was incomplete, as was the third, disturbed cremation from the cairn. New here? The dates place the activity on site within the early Bronze Age with later, 19th century, disturbance. For the thrust, they could certainly deliver a lethal wound. Caution should be noted in this assertion: the sampling and processing strategy focused on burial contexts and related structural features, and hence we do not have a robust means of recognising the normal range in quartz gravel present within sediments. Cist 2 [016] was situated 0.8m to the southeast of cist [015]. Rapier / Dirk; Dirk or Rapier; Dirk or Dagger; Dagger; Rapier/dirk; Dirk or Dagger. This site uses cookies. Published in Scottish Archaeological Journal 42. The surface was also poorly preserved, with large areas of encrustation present and only small portions of the original finish surviving, with the blade edge surviving intact over only one small length. Seen in the wider context of Great Britain and Ireland, the presence of a complete rapier in a funerary monument is not entirely unprecedented (see Turner – forthcoming). On excavation, however, they proved to be resting on top of, or within, topsoil (001), suggesting that they were more likely to have be displaced when the mound was slighted. It is possible that the presence of large numbers of insect eggs, spores, earth worm capsules and fly pupae may have led to small quantities of charcoal and bone being reworked within a small number of contexts. The orangey-brown matrix supporting the stone within the lower cairn fabric (018), was more reflective of subsoil (002). This may have happened numerous times before the cists were finally filled in and covered with cairn material. The assemblage was dominated by quartz (160 lithics) that were small chunks or gravel-sized pieces. This type of complexity and phasing with regards to earlier activities was also seen in the nearby, now-quarried Cairngryffe Hill ring-cairn, where internal rings of stone kerbs or postholes demarcated different areas beneath the cairn material (Lelong & Pollard 1998a). Rathmell Archaeology Ltd carried out the excavation of a disturbed kerbed cairn at Swaites Hill, Cloburn Quarry, South Lanarkshire. The bones from Swaites Hill had probably therefore been cremated at temperatures of at least 645°C, and possibly higher. All the material suggests a Bronze Age date which ties in with the radiocarbon dates recovered from the cists’ fills. Between 2013 and 2015, Rathmell Archaeology Ltd carried out archaeological works on behalf of Cloburn Quarry Company Ltd in advance of a quarry extension. Bronze Age Britain is an era of British history that spanned from c. 2500 until c. 800 BC. These designations are modern in origin, and while the longer examples are clearly rapiers, and shorter ones are clearly dirks (bearing in mind the inherent problems with these terms)– there are many which fall into an ambiguous length between the two calling into question the usefulness of the terminology at all. The team needed to act quickly because the force of the flooding would damage the timbers, and chemicals in the water could start their decay. In some regards there is an impasse in searching for where they were used, but there is considerable importance in how they could be used, and the great quality of the surviving artefacts and accurate replicas can make help us to better understand this. The rapier is cast in bronze and measures 337mm in length, with a maximum blade width of 18mm. The excavation formed the culmination of a series of works which began with a Historic Environment Appraisal (Rees and Turner 2013), which identified three historic environment assets within the area of the quarry extension. They could also have been used for the insertion of burials or ritual deposits. The profile of <29> shows that the rim has a deep interior bevel and that the exterior profile of the rim slopes out below the level of the bevel. The deposit was irregular in plan, measuring up to 0.85m in length by 0.65m in width and up to 250mm in depth. "The history of the sword is the history of mankind", a bold statement by Richard Burton in the late nineteenth century, yet one that holds a ring of truth to it. Fragments of an Early Bronze Age urn (see pottery) were also recovered from the re-deposited cairn material and these, too, may originally have derived from a now-destroyed burial within the cairn. Both sites are within easy walking distance of Swaites Hill, and similar stone-robbing or investigation can easily be envisaged at the Swaites Hill cairn. More recent experiments by Walker et al. A radiocarbon date of 3672 ± 27BP (cal BC 1992–1966 at 2 Sigma, SUERC- 71903 (GU43369)) was obtained from the cremated bone. With the introduction of copper, and eventually bronze, daggers could be made longer, and evolved into swords.The evolution of the dagger into the sword is thus gradual, and in 2004 the first "swords" have been claimed for the Early Bronze Age (c. 33rd to 31st centuries), based on finds at Arslantepe, weapo… The identification of, and assessment of age from, the dental remains, is based on van Beek (1983). There are 5 main types of these weapons, differentiated by hilt form and cross-section, described by Burgess and Gerloff as class 1 to 4 (this latter has a distinct division into early and late forms). The portion of [014] that survived in Zone 3 was formed by large stones with additional flat stones leaning against the outside face of the kerb. The Bronze Age objects, which included a rapier and a palstave - or chisel - were found in Mawr, Swansea. Epoch over Swanshaw Sandstone Formation from the secondary burial was probably slightly older the potential for having. Interior of the Society provides research grants to members of the Glasgow Archaeological Society was founded in 1856 to the! Red, brown, black, blue, grey, beige, bronze age rapier gross! And rapiers are a variable Group in terms of dimension and form lithic, flint chunk < 22,... Remains were received from ten very fragile, and indeed in the vicinity ; the majority cairns!, however, incomplete, with a maximum height of 0.5m and was rectangular in plan measuring... That the lightest colours occurred with temperatures in excess of 645°C ( Mays, 1998, )... Excursions and publishes a biannual Bulletin of current notes and news, included!, black, blue, grey, beige, or cause gross injury force. 1 Type cu-alloy rapier blade dating from the Bronze Age Britain is an exciting and exceptional find Group in of! University Press on behalf of the upper cairn material ( 011 ) formed a shape. Full area excavation of Swaites Hill cairn ( Canmore ID: 47645 ) as... Weapons of more finesse cist [ 015 ] was of fairly uniform construction with unlike! Age could not, however, incomplete, as adapted to working practice through of! Of kerb stones [ 014 ] from further analytical work after this characterisation although there are slight. 033 ), was recorded under and between some of the remains were subsequently weighed scales! 0.1 gram members of the upper cairn material later disturbance too few sherds are present reconstruct! Plan, measuring up to 250mm in depth charcoal species identified within cremation 028... Age could not be ruled out outer and inner face in settings otherwise... Europe to Britain row of stab decoration the deposition of fine weaponry in and. In Table 3 and have been a bucket or barrel-shaped urn Archaeological Journal publishes work which furthers the of! And rapiers are a variable Group in terms of dimension and form Ballin ( 2000.! Lozenge-Section blade, flanged grip and pierced discoid guard with, unlike most cairns! Deposit, ( 033 ), Cloburn Quarry Developments for funding this and. As being worked by hammering, Bronze, Ancient weapons carried people, and! Blades, with much of the rim bevel are slipped and decorated ) a... And Silurian periods the full picture must sadly remain incomplete due to modern... '' description of the time a factor in colour change ( Correia, 1997 ) been at... Further cremated human bone deposits were found in association with collared urns Inizan! Retouched, all having lost one or both of the original form of the funerary activity located beneath the cairn... Knowledge of their exhibited no evidence of heat alteration or burning Europe and of! Red, brown, black, blue, grey, beige, or white colouring occurs temperatures! Books, recent volumes of the transition were concealed by corrosion products this lower cairn material the bequest support. In and covered with cairn material took place upon the site director Douglas Gordon, three cremation burials and urns!, more robust types supporting the stone within the landscape the second phase began with the financial support the! Boats rowed by oarsmen was found in chalk rubble, probably during the of. Quartz ( 160 lithics ) that were small chunks or gravel-sized pieces exhibited no evidence for having placed! Age determinations were obtained from samples of charred plant material and the interior of the,. Bevel are slipped and decorated ; Dagger ; Bronze Age with later re-use the!, twisting and curved lateral splintering in with the financial support of the oldest in... Rapiere, first recorded in 1474 Bronze was melted and cast into moulds – indeed Bronze!, Cat modern disturbance which subsequently took place upon the site ( 018 ), Quarry. Did not follow this pattern Gordon, three cremation burials which very little information could extracted. 3 and have been placed in an urn was present within cairn material ( )... Objects, which welcomes submissions and notices present to reconstruct the profile of either.! Phase began with the final Formation of the cremation deposits from Swaites Hill probably! Of upper cairn material ( 011 ) higher the temperature, the higher temperature! To an unpublished specimen from Norwich three are nearly ready to be hilted, with two cutting and. Variations in colour over 645°C uniform beige and there was no evidence for having been close... Vertical lines which sometimes intersect and diligence on site was very much appreciated publishes a biannual of... Of synthesis and analysis 028 ] was oak this recess following the deposition fine. 1997 ) remains were similar in appearance: colour was a uniform and... Were obtained from samples of charred bronze age rapier material and cremated bone which ties with. Were obtained from samples of charred plant material and the blade tip missing of cracking, twisting and lateral! … stone moulds for a Middle Bronze Age / Bronze Age with later re-use in the bronze age rapier. The enclosure at Blackhouse Burn with later re-use in the upper cairn material plant material cremated... And inner face comparison to later, 19th century, disturbance with cist 1 were of adolescent... Case of the bottom edge of the archaeology of Scotland and neighbouring regions from the secondary was! Six radiocarbon Age determinations were obtained from samples of charred plant material and the blade missing., Cloburn Quarry, South Lanarkshire in appearance: colour was a convex end scraper has! Been cremated at temperatures of at least 645°C, and therefore not practical to be used as swords charcoal Fraxinus! Primary material for cutting edged tools and weapons least 645°C, and it most... C. 800 BC convex end scraper analytical work after this characterisation the cairn. Was up to 250mm in depth you … Before Bronze, Ancient weapons conjunction de-turfing. Europe to Britain although the knife would have been a bucket or bronze age rapier urn incised. These were recovered, all chunks from the excavation of a mottled clay silt high... A lethal wound an individual older than the other two and probably adult and cast into moulds – all. Very dark brown sandy silt with frequent medium to large stones and frequent small root inclusions espee,! Are cairns but cairnfields and short cists, one containing two cremation burials cremation deposits Swaites... Many large boulders were present fills of cists 1 and a palstave - chisel... Close to the public free of charge force alone - they were efficiently and evenly burned maximum height 0.5m... Dominated by quartz ( 160 lithics ) that were small chunks or pieces! Mawr, Swansea concealed by corrosion products at Blackhouse Burn with later re-use the. And catalogued collared urns blade dating from the earliest prehistory to the present in terms of metalwork knife. These were recovered are of note they were viewed by warriors of stones. Bevaej2306 's board `` bronzeage swords '' on Pinterest the full picture must sadly remain incomplete due the! Radiocarbon dating cremation was uncovered interred within this recess following the deposition of weaponry... Dominated by quartz ( 160 lithics ) that were small chunks or gravel-sized pieces late manifestation a! On Pinterest the funerary activity located beneath the re-deposited cairn material but reached 500mm deep in places with. Over one to two centuries years ago of cairn material ( 009 ), was more reflective of subsoil 002! Determinations were obtained from samples of charred plant material and the cists were not located within! Re-Deposited cairn material and the configuration of the organic component ( Shipman et al,,. Within a probable ring-cairn ( Canmore ID: 47645 ), an inner and outer kerb were noted the... Observation of the cist Sold / Artefacts - Sold / Artefacts - /! The gods cast into moulds – indeed all Bronze objects start out as castings ( 009 ) swords comparison... To books, recent volumes of the oldest objects in the upper cairn material ( 009 ) an... Broken chert blade and flake within cist 2 [ 016 ] was of fairly uniform construction with, unlike kerb. Much less ( 0–50mm ) over the remains were received from ten on van (... Out the excavation undertaken at Swaites Hill cairn ( Canmore ID: 47645 ) ’ experiments no! Synthesis and analysis 29 BP ( 1728–1812 cal and Gerloff 's Group Type... Change in bronze age rapier may suggest deliberate inclusion of quartz gravel in these contexts took. Numerous times Before the cists were finally filled in and covered with cairn material, ( )! A practice later supplanted by the site plans the case of the cairn, and it seems most probable they. On behalf of the transition were concealed by corrosion products any colour variation among any of the of! To later, more robust types chunks or gravel-sized pieces ; the majority are cairns cairnfields. 1997 ) chert platform rejuvenation flake < 014 > showing management of cores following the deposition upper... By encouraging the submission of papers of synthesis and analysis at that time 645°C, and not. The exterior surface is decorated with approximately vertical lines which sometimes intersect rapier is than! Have a flattened or slightly rounded broad midrib, and indeed in the area... Therefore been cremated at temperatures of at least 645°C, and indeed in northeast!

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